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What companies, governments or third parties do with that data will open a new frontier in the already complicated debates on data privacy and digital rights. Intangible forces such as electrical currents, ultrasound waves and magnetic stimulation can be used to alter mental states, behaviours or the physiology of the brain in ways that used to require surgically entering the skull or ingesting drugs.

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But without clear regulation, this technology is easy to use in unapproved ways which could put consumers at risk. There is already a small market developing around do-it-yourself brain stimulation kits. For more on the science of non-invasive mind control, take a look at our interview with Antoine Jerusalem , Professor in the Department of Engineering Science University of Oxford. This is the ability to use artificial intelligence, neuro-imaging technologies and big data to identify individuals and scenarios where crime has a high probability of occurring.

The History of the MIT Department of Physics

Artificial intelligence used in courtrooms could help make justice more efficient, but consider the risks in a world where evidence-faking algorithms proliferate. We're facing a digital revolution, writes Daniela Piana in this article exploring the ethics of predictive justice. It's up to us to ensure that we are still ruled by the law rather than falling into the trap of making the rule of law equal to the rule of code.

Speaking of rules, in a world where legal processes are influenced by artificially intelligent judges and juries, these four principles could help guard against programmed AI bias. The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum. I accept.

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Global Agenda Emerging Technologies Neuroscience Mental Health 8 fascinating and fearsome frontiers of science you should know about From quantum biology to mind control, these are the areas of research scientists are most excited about. How do we build a sustainableworld?

Submit a video. Most Popular. The inspiring story behind this picture of two world leaders Rosamond Hutt 18 Sep This company lets you set your own salary Sean Fleming 20 Sep More on the agenda. Explore context.

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Explore the latest strategic trends, research and analysis. Machine learning through small data. Room temperature superconductivity. Lethal autonomous weapons. Posing with the newly completed inch cyclotron in the Crocker Laboratory are left to right Donald Cooksey, Ernest O. Lawrence, R.

History of Ecological Sciences, Part 53: Organizing Ecologists before 1946

Thornton, W. Salisbury and J. Backus and on top L. Alvarez and E. Atomic Energy Commission. AEC Civilian Research Programs and the Rise of the National Laboratory System The tools needed to carry out this mission were of a scale that required the federal government to construct and operate them. The Oil Embargo and Expansion of Federal Energy Research Activities In , early concerns about rising petroleum imports drove President Nixon and Congress to expand the AEC research charter to include non-nuclear forms of energy and related technologies. Additional Historical Resources. Important though these insights might be, they leave the layman perplexed, since it is hard to form a conception of the outside world without the more traditional metaphysical concepts.

The large gap between the metaphysical concepts in physics and the folk metaphysical concepts leaves room for a descriptive analysis of our folk metaphysical notions. Dennett , argues that the perspective one should take with regard to metaphysical questions is to view them as questions arising in common situations in daily life. In this paper, I will explore the prospects of cognitive theories about the metaphysical concepts we use in daily life. Cognitive theories of the fundamental categories by which we understand our environment are obviously useful in the cognitive sciences.

Also philosophers might profit from this project. As Paul a argues, insights from the cognitive sciences may lead to refinements of metaphysical intuitions, because subtle unnoticed psychological biases in the conceptual analysis may thus be detected.

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Osborne argues that empirical findings will have a destructive impact on common-sense ontology and thus will be of benefit in debunking strategies in metaphysics. I will argue that cognitive studies may undermine particular metaphysical doctrines arrived at by means of conceptual analysis and help us achieve a better understanding of many metaphysical issues and puzzles. In the last section I discuss several objections that may be raised against the use of empirical findings from the cognitive sciences in metaphysics. I argue that the objections are not fatal, but do highlight some limitations of the approach.

The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years 1863–1963.

In metametaphysical writings, the Quine-Carnap controversy is often revisited. In his early works, inspired by Russell and the philosophy of logical atomism, Quine defended a substantive theory of ontology. Carnap, on the other hand, is known for his deflationary views. In his Vienna Circle period he Carnap, , had dealt a serious blow to the metaphysical project by construing metaphysical statements as meaningless.

In later years Quine was one of the first to express doubts about the ontological framework he had put forward and became de facto one of the first antirealists in the s. The philosophical motives for antirealism are clear and well-understood and yet antirealism seems to offend the strong belief that there really is a mind-independent world that can be described in a precise language.

Thus ontology has become a psychological and sociological construct. Admittedly, this view comes close to certain brands of antirealism, in particular varieties of constructivism, yet it need not entail antirealism. Naturalized epistemology of ontology is in a straightforward way compatible with the existence of an external world that imposes stringent restrictions on the way it can be reified, categorized and described. The starting point is realistic: a human being sitting in an environment being struck by light waves, sound waves, tactile impressions, and reacting to chemical elements in olfactory and taste experience.

In the remainder of this paper I want to explore and discuss the scope of a project of naturalized epistemology of ontology and, more generally, of cognitive metaphysics in a present day context. Conceptual spaces are one-dimensional or multidimensional structures, equipped with a metric. Objects are mapped onto points in these spaces and the dimensions of a space correspond to qualities relative to which objects may be compared with each other.

Comparisons are made in terms of the metrics defined on the spaces; the closer the objects or rather, their representations are in a given conceptual space the more similar 13 they are in the respect corresponding to the space. To make this less abstract, consider some actual examples of conceptual spaces.

One of the simplest examples of a conceptual space is a three-dimensional space with a Euclidean metric defined on it.

This space can serve to represent proximity relations between objects in the world: the closer the representations of objects are in the space, the closer the objects are in reality. Another example is auditory space, which is generally taken to be a space with two dimensions, one for pitch, and one for loudness. A third example is color space, which arguably is the hitherto best studied conceptual space. Color space is a three-dimensional Euclidean space, with one dimension representing hue — think of the color circle — one dimension representing brightness — which ranges from white to black, through all shades of gray — and one dimension representing saturation — the intensity of the color.

More complicated examples of conceptual spaces have been described in the literature, including olfactory space, multidimensional shape spaces, action spaces, and spaces of scientific concepts.

For example, the property of redness is a region of color space and the property of sweetness is a region of taste space. In principle, any set of points in a space counts as a region of that space, but for reasons of cognitive economy only regions with certain characteristics, in particular convexity, are regarded as properties. A first application of the conceptual spaces approach concerns the paradoxes of identity, for which Douven and Decock offer a general account.

Over time, due to wear and tear, one plank at a time gets replaced with another, until eventually all the planks are replaced. The paradox consists in the fact that every replacement by a single plank cannot be believed to alter the identity of the ship, while in the final stage no material of the initial ship is left.

Another paradox is the identity of a statue and the lump of bronze of which the statue is made; they are characterized by different qualities but are composed of the same material. Douven and Decock argue that the paradoxes can be understood by construing the notion of identity not as the logical notion of identity, but as a slightly different notion related to a cognitive notion involved in identification. There is a welter of psychological research showing that when we compare items with each other, we typically take into account only a subset of the respects in which the object could be found to be similar and that it is a context-dependent matter which subset we take into account.

The conceptual spaces approach provides the means to make this proposal more precise. Similarity between objects is determined by the distances of their locations in the relevant conceptual spaces. Moreover, high similarity is determined by a particular threshold. If two objects are similar above a certain threshold in all the conceptual spaces that are deemed relevant in a particular context, our judgment is that they are identical. This construal heavily draws on concrete practices in the cognitive sciences; e. On our construal, the paradoxes of identity are based on a confusion of relevant contexts.